American Salon July 2012 : Page 42
AMERICAN HISTORY With this issue, American Salon celebrates 135 years of bringing news, trends, education and entertainment to the beauty profession. Here’s a look back at how evolving culture, fashion, technology and politics shaped our industry and the world. A lot has happened since we published our rst issue in 1877: the turn of two centuries; the invention of the electric lightbulb, telephone and Internet; air travel; moon landings. Although the country was smaller—just 38 states—there was no mass communication to bridge even the shortest distance. It took months or even years for news of trends to cross the Atlantic Ocean from Europe’s style capitals. When it came to the beauty industry in 19 th century America, there were no professional hairdressers’ guilds and no apprenticeship programs like the ones that had long been established in Europe. But things were changing fast. The turn of the last century saw America’s greatest leaps forward in both innovation and education. The time was right for a voice to unify, educate and elevate the profession of hairdressing. That voice, rst heard in 1877, came from a tiny of ce in the heart of Brooklyn, NY. Here, we’ve compiled some of the biggest moments of the last 135 years from the worlds of beauty, fashion, politics and the pages of American Salon . 1877-1907 The rst professional beauty magazine, The American Hairdresser (now known as American Salon ) is established by publisher Charles Ossenbrunner. Henry Russell Howell is named the magazine’s rst editor in chief. < 1877 1880 Franz Ströher founds the German company that will become Wella Professionals , the longest-lived professional beauty products company in operation today. 1883 Famed designer Coco Chanel is born on August 19 in Saumur, France. 1890s The American 1889 The American Hairdresser publishes the rst fashion plate of a design by hairdresser Emile Wolff of Philadelphia. 1888 The Hairdressers Association , a professional group for hairstylists and wig-makers, was formed with The American Hairdresser Editor Howell as its secretary. Hairdresser holds the rst U.S. hairdressing tournament , awarding gold, silver and bronze medals. The word “salon” comes into common usage to describe a professional hairdressing establishment. 42 American Salon July 2012
American Salon staff
AMERICAN HISTORY<br /> With this issue, American Salon celebrates 135 years of bringing news, trends,<br /> education and entertainment to the beauty profession. Here’s a look back at how<br /> evolving culture, fashion, technology and politics shaped our industry and the world.<br /> A lot has happened since we published our first<br /> issue in 1877: the turn of two centuries; the invention<br /> of the electric lightbulb, telephone and Internet;<br /> air travel; moon landings. Although the country<br /> was smaller—just 38 states—there was no mass<br /> communication to bridge even the shortest distance.<br /> It took months or even years for news of trends to<br /> cross the Atlantic Ocean from Europe’s style capitals.<br /> When it came to the beauty industry in 19th century<br /> America, there were no professional hairdressers’<br /> guilds and no apprenticeship programs like the<br /> ones that had long been established in Europe.<br /> But things were changing fast. The turn of the<br /> last century saw America’s greatest leaps forward<br /> in both innovation and education. The time was<br /> right for a voice to unify, educate and elevate the<br /> profession of hairdressing. That voice, first heard<br /> in 1877, came from a tiny office in the heart of<br /> Brooklyn, NY. Here, we’ve compiled some of the<br /> biggest moments of the last 135 years from the<br /> worlds of beauty, fashion, politics and the pages of<br /> American Salon.<br /> <br /> 1877-1907<br /> 1877 The first professional beauty magazine, The American Hairdresser (now known as American Salon) is established by publisher Charles Ossenbrunner. Henry Russell Howell is named the magazine’s first editor in chief.<br /> <br /> 1880 Franz Ströher founds the German company that will become Wella Professionals, the longest-lived professional beauty products company in operation today.<br /> <br /> 1883 Famed designer Coco Chanel is born on August 19 in Saumur, France. <br /> <br /> 1888 The Hairdressers Association, a professional group for hairstylists and wig-makers, was formed with The American Hairdresser Editor Howell as its secretary.<br /> <br /> 1889 The American Hairdresser publishes the first fashion plate of a design by hairdresser Emile Wolff of Philadelphia.<br /> <br /> 1890s The American Hairdresser holds the first U.S. hairdressing tournament, awarding gold, silver and bronze medals. The word “salon” comes into common usage to describe a professional hairdressing establishment.<br /> <br /> 1890 Frenchmen Brisbois and Federmeyer open the first American hairdressing academy in Chicago.<br /> <br /> 1891 The breaker, a device which enabled hairdressers to curl synthetic hairpieces, becomes popular. The machine featured a series of horizontal metal rods, about 1/8 inch in diameter, around which damp hair was wrapped and left to dry into waves.<br /> <br /> 1892 Frenchman Alexandre F. Godefroy invents the hot-blast dryer, but the appliance is too expensive to gain wide acceptance.<br /> <br /> 1893 The American Hairdresser holds first fashion plate contest for hairdressers from the United States and Canada.<br /> <br /> 1898 Spanish-American War begins with the sinking of the USS Maine.<br /> <br /> 1900 Charles Dana Gibson’s popular magazine Drawings of Gibson Girls, women with pompadours or bouffants and impossibly tiny waists, sets a new standard of feminine beauty. <br /> <br /> <br /> 1908-1938<br /> 1908 Max Factor begins selling cosmetics and wigs to studios in the up-and-coming motion picture industry. <br /> <br /> 1910 <br /> The world’s first celebrity hairstylist, Antoine, begins cutting bobs in Paris; the bob becomes an international beauty trend in 1917.<br /> <br /> 1914 World War I <br /> begins July 28; the United States enters the war on April 17, 1917.<br /> <br /> 1917 The first International Beauty Shop Owners Convention and Exhibition (now known as the International Beauty Show, or IBS) is held at the Waldorf-Astoria in New York City; 15 exhibitors and 300 barbers attend.<br /> <br /> 1918 World War I ends on November 11. <br /> <br /> 1919 Inecto (now known as Zotos) is founded.<br /> <br /> 1919 Leo J. Wahl creates the first electromagnetic clipper, which featured an alternating current (AC) motor that was quieter, faster, more durable and lighter in weight than the direct current (DC) clippers in use at the time; soon after he established Wahl Clipper and started selling to barbershops. <br /> <br /> 1920s Electric curling-iron heaters (which heated up the barrel of the curling iron) and hair winders (used for perming) were introduced. <br /> <br /> 1921 The National Hairdressers Association, predecessor to the NCA, is formed.<br /> <br /> 1921 Salon furniture maker Takara Belmont (then known as Takara Chuzo Ltd.) is formed in Japan.<br /> <br /> 1922 Clipper manufacturer Andis Company is established.<br /> <br /> 1924 John Oster forms The John Oster Manufacturing Company in Racine, WI, manufacturing handheld clippers to sell to the public for touch-ups between salon and barbershop visits. <br /> <br /> 1927 Talkies revolutionize the motion picture industry.<br /> <br /> 1930s Jean Harlow is America’s first platinum-blonde bombshell.<br /> <br /> 1930 Wella opens its American division.<br /> <br /> 1932 Charles <br /> and Joseph Revson and Charles Lachman introduce opaque <br /> nail enamels containing precision-ground pigments suspended in liquid; they form Revlon the same year. <br /> <br /> 1932 New York chemist Lawrence M. Gelb and his wife, Joan Claire, bring a haircolor product back to the United States from Paris-based Mury Company that penetrates the hair shaft rather than just coating it; Gelb calls it—and the company he forms—Clairol. <br /> <br /> 1932 Inecto (later Zotos) founder Ralph L. Evans and Everett G. McDonough invent a perming method that relies on heat generated by a chemical reaction to produce curls, replacing the perm machine.<br /> <br /> 1939-1967<br /> 1939 World War II <br /> begins on September 1; the U.S. enters the war in 1941 on December 7. “Be the Woman Behind the Man Behind the Gun” war bonds are sold in salons.<br /> <br /> 1940 Zotos launches the first cold wave perm.<br /> <br /> 1941 Pedicures and foot massages become new salon services.<br /> <br /> 1945 World War II ends on September 1<br /> <br /> 1947 Goldwell is founded in Germany by Hans Erich Dotter. <br /> <br /> 1947 Barbicide, a disinfectant for styling tools, is invented by Maurice King.<br /> <br /> 1950s <br /> Redheads multiply with the popularity of Lucille Ball and model Suzy Parker. Shorter hairstyles such as the cap, bouffant, beehive and poodle cut also become more prevalent as hat popularity fades.<br /> <br /> 1950 The first one-step lightener and haircolor, Miss Clairol Hair Color Bath, is introduced at IBS in New York City.<br /> <br /> 1953 Marilyn Monroe stars in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes and ignites a platinum blonde explosion that lasts until the 1960s.<br /> <br /> <1954 Rayette introduces the transparent plastic hood dryer.<br /> <br /> 1960s Jacqueline Kennedy becomes an important style-maker, with her lush hairstyles causing a revival of wigs; the mod look arrives from London with The Beatles and Twiggy (far right). <br /> <br /> 1960 Redken is founded by Paula Kent (now Meehan) and Jheri Redding.<br /> <br /> 1964 Soft Sheen products established. Sally Beauty Supply opens its first store in New Orleans.<br /> <br /> 1965 The United States begins planned air attacks in Vietnam.<br /> <br /> 1967 Vidal Sassoon, stylist Roger Thompson and perm expert Annie Humphreys begin developing the wash-and-wear perm. <br /> <br /> 1968-1997<br /> 1968 The days of separate beauty parlors and barbershops begin to come to an end with the first unisex salon opening in New York City.<br /> <br /> 1968 Vidal Sassoon cuts Mia Farrow’s famous pixie for her role in Rosemary’s Baby. The hippie movement is in full swing, bringing with it long, straight, center-parted hair and Afros.<br /> <br /> 1969 Patrick Ales establishes Phytosolba Laboratories in France; his Phyto haircare products arrive in the United States in 1989.<br /> <br /> 1970 Redken enters the haircolor market with Lapinal.<br /> <br /> 1972 Eve-N-Tips, the first plastic nail tips, debut.<br /> <br /> 1972 Blow-dryers and styling irons, including the first crimping iron invented by Geri Cusenza, start gaining momentum for salons to retail. <br /> <br /> 1971 The American Hairdresser becomes American Hairdresser/Salon Owner and adds a special section for owners with articles on salon management. Wigs become a $1 billion market, with 20 million women owning wigs.<br /> <br /> 1973 Cusenza establishes Sebastian Professional with husband John Sebastian. <br /> <br /> 1973 Noel de Caprio opens the first day spa. <br /> <br /> 1975 The Vietnam War ends on April 30.<br /> <br /> 1976 KMS founded. <br /> <br /> 1976 A report shows that aerosol hairsprays destroy the ozone layer; manufacturers reformulate their products.<br /> <br /> 1976 Stylist Allen Edwards creates Farrah Fawcett’s signature blonde bouncy ’do seen on the hit show Charlie’s Angels. <br /> <br /> 1978 Jan Nordstrom Arnold and Jim Nordstrom establish Creative Nail Design (now known as CND) based on a secret nail resin formula invented by their father, Dr. Stuart Nordstrom. <br /> <br /> 1978 Horst Rechelbacher founds Aveda. <br /> <br /> 1980 Two major companies join the haircare market: John Paul DeJoria and Paul Mitchell found John Paul Mitchell Systems and Arnie Miller founds Matrix Essentials. Tweezerman is also founded.<br /> <br /> 1981 George Schaeffer buys dental supply company Odontorium Products; Suzi Weiss-Fischmann soon joins the company and becomes executive vice president and artistic director as the focus shifts to nails. Company is renamed OPI Products. <br /> <br /> 1982 Salons report that half of their clients—mainly women aged 25–34—got professional perms during this year.<br /> <br /> 1984 American Hairdresser/Salon Owner becomes American Salon.<br /> <br /> 1985 L’Anza founded. <br /> <br /> 1989 The supermodel is at the height of popularity, with models appearing everywhere—from magazine covers and commercials to music videos and talk shows, including Cindy Crawford hosting MTV’s House of Style (1989–1995).<br /> <br /> 1990 The popularity of grunge results in straighter hairstyles and a sharp decline in perms.<br /> <br /> 1993 David Raccuglia launches American Crew, a line of shampoos, conditioners and styling products strictly for men. <br /> <br /> 1993 Computerization hits the salon industry with industry-specific software company Selectcomputer.<br /> <br /> 1994 Chemical hair straighteners go mainstream.<br /> <br /> 1994 “The Rachel,” the short, layered cut created by stylist Chris McMillan for Jennifer Aniston’s character Rachel Green on the TV show Friends, <br /> is born.<br /> <br /> 1995 Men are reported to be spending $9.5 million on beauty.<br /> <br /> 1998-2012<br /> 1998 Passing of shampoo guru and Nexxus founder Jheri Redding (at age 91), who created the Jheri curl and altered the course of the beauty world by proving that hair was made of protein—not calcium as doctors had thought—forever changing the way products were formulated. <br /> <br /> 1998 The phrase “bad-hair day” is added to the British Roget’s Thesaurus. <br /> <br /> 1999 Keri Russell causes a stir when her Felicity character chops off her long curls. The actress’ short crop sent the series plunging 20 spots in the Nielsen ratings.<br /> <br /> 2000 L’Oréal, S.A./Cosmair acquires Matrix Essentials from Bristol-Myers Squibb. <br /> <br /> 2001 After selling ABBA Pure & Natural Hair Care in 1997, hairstylist turned entrepreneur Jim Markham launches PureOlogy Serious Colour Care. The line, which includes sulfate-free shampoos, is designed to preserve haircolor.<br /> <br /> 2001 Japanese hair straightening treatments from companies like Yuko arrive in American salons. <br /> <br /> 2001<br /> Winn Claybaugh and John Paul DeJoria open Paul Mitchell The School in Costa Mesa, CA. In the next 10 years 100 schools open, offering premier education to a total of 16,000 future beauty professionals. <br /> <br /> 2002 David Beckham becomes the poster child for the metrosexual craze sweeping the country that has men spending big bucks on pampering beauty services that range from manicures and waxing to facials, cuts and haircolor. <br /> <br /> 2003 Procter & Gamble (P&G) acquires Wella, which includes Sebastian and Graham Webb. Known as P&G Salon Professional, the company continues to invest in nurturing the skills of young beauty professionals through Wella Trend Vision.<br /> <br /> 2006 Hairdresser extraordinaire Odile Gilbert’s elaborate hair creations for Kirsten Dunst help make Marie Antoinette a mane attraction in theaters.<br /> <br /> 2007 Australian Makeup guru Napoleon Perdis opens his first flagship store and academy on star–studded Hollywood Boulevard in Southern California. <br /> <br /> 2007 L’Oréal acquires PureOlogy Serious Colour Care <br /> <br /> 2008 P&G purchases Nioxin Research Laboratories, which specializes in products for thinning hair.<br /> <br /> 2009 Moroccanoil’s success spurs the growth of the oils category, and numerous like-minded launches ensue from companies like Agadir. <br /> <br /> 2009 Celebrity hairdresser Oribe launches his signature line that fuses old-world hairstyling supported by new-world technology and the finest ingredients.<br /> <br /> 2009 Unilever segues into the premium professional haircare market with its acquisition of TIGI. In the next four years, the company debuts brand restages for its cosmetics line and haircolor and also introduces Hair Reborn, which infuses moisture-deprived hair with a megadose of hydration.<br /> <br /> 2010 L’Oréal Professionnel launches its revolutionary new haircolor, INOA. The color relies on an innovative technology called ODS, Oil Delivery System, which enables it to lift up to three levels and provide 100 percent gray coverage with vibrant, silky results without the use of ammonia.<br /> <br /> 2010 <br /> Sebastian Shaper Hairspray turns <br /> 25. P&G Salon Professional celebrates the milestone with a blowout event at the Paramount Studios Backlot.<br /> <br /> 2010 David Raccuglia and hair guru Kurt Kueffner co-found MENSDEPT., a Minneapolis salon that delivers an extraordinary grooming experience. A product line comprising eight grooming essentials eventually follows.<br /> <br /> 2010 OPI founder George Schaeffer purchases color line Aloxxi from Alberto-Culver and promptly sets plans in motion to bring personality to haircolor with fun names and fashion-forward shades. <br /> <br /> 2010 Redken, which pioneered advances in education and established itself as a leader in backstage beauty at fashion week in New York, London, Milan and Paris, celebrates <br /> 50 years in professional haircare. <br /> <br /> 2011 Aveda modernizes Full Spectrum Protective Permanent Crème Hair Color, a 96 percent naturally derived haircolor system capable of creating fade-resistant hues in a wide array of shades sans damage. <br /> <br /> 2011 Paul Mitchell’s new men’s line, Mitch, makes a grand entrance on the pages of American Salon with an exclusive collection shot in Italy. <br /> <br /> 2012 Jim and Cheryl Markham debut ColorProof, a new haircare and styling line formulated with a proprietary blend of key ingredients that work together to provide superior color protection. <br /> <br />
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